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European Halogen-free Security Cables & Wires

Hi-Tech Controls, Inc, European wires and cables

 
DATAFLAMM halogen-free, RoHS Compliant, RoHS Approved, Hi-Tech Controls, European  , Halogen-free Security Cables
Halogen-free
Introduction  
In all locations, due to damages of large amount of materials and more of importance to protect human life and technical equipment against damages caused by fire and also for technical enquiries of insurance, the installation of halogen-free security cables is required.

You will find on the next following pages the instructions for installation as well as the test methods and laying indications of the halogen-free security cables.

What are Halogens? What are Halogens?
When is a cable halogen-free? When is a cable halogen-free?
Important points Important points
Application Application
European  -Security cables and wires and the advantages European -Security cables and wires and the advantages
Caloric load values (heat of combustion) Caloric load values (heat of combustion)
Regulations Regulations
Tests: Behavior in fire Tests: Behavior in fire
Test Method A - test on single cable (IEC 60332-2) Test Method A - test on single cable (IEC 60332-2)
Test Method B - test on single cable (IEC 60332-1, HD 405.1, EN 50265-2-1, DIN VDE 0482 part 265-2-1) Test Method B - test on single cable (IEC 60332-1, HD 405.1, EN 50265-2-1, DIN VDE 0482 part 265-2-1)
Test Method C - test on bunched cables (similar to IEC 60332-3, HD 405.3, EN 50226-2, DIN VDE 0482 part 2) Test Method C - test on bunched cables (similar to IEC 60332-3, HD 405.3, EN 50226-2, DIN VDE 0482 part 2)
Corrosiveness of combustion gases Corrosiveness of combustion gases
Continuance of insulation effect under direct fire conditions Continuance of insulation effect under direct fire conditions
Non-halogen verification Non-halogen verification
Smoke density Smoke density
Functionality of electric cable systems Functionality of electric cable systems
Test: Functionality under fire Test: Functionality under fire

What are Halogens?   to top up arrow
Halogens "formation of salt" are the elements as fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.
Fluorine and chlorine are important for cables and wires as atoms in the plastic molecules, for example fluorine plastics or PVC (polyvinyl chloride) are of significance; and bromine as component of flame protection additives.
When is a cable halogen-free?  
to top up arrow
The burning behavior of cables and wires is very important for the installation in buildings and also in control panels.
Thereby the following points are very important:   to top up arrow
  • Behavior under flame influence i.e. the inflammability as well as the propagation to fire
  • Subsequent damage by formation of corrosive and toxic gases
  • Development of smoke density (darkening of emergency exits hindered the fire extinguishing works)

Cables produced of not halogen-free materials such as mainly the materials with chlorine in the molecule chain: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chloroprene rubber (CR), chlorinated polyethylene (CM), chlorsulfonated polyethylene (CSM) and fluor-hydrocarbons.

Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)
Fluoethylenepropylene (FEP)
Perfluoralkoxypolymeric (PFA)

These material have better behavior in case of fire.
These are hardly combustible or not flammable and vastly self-extinguishing. Due to this effect and in case of fire the released molecules constituents chlorine and fluorine, which hinder the admittance of oxygen to the fire location and suffocate the flame.

The remarkable disadvantages of these materials are existing in the fact that the released chlorine and fluorine atoms composite themselves with hydrogen which is decomposed from plastic material as well as with hydraulic acid or hydrofluoric acid from the existing air.

These compositions are extremely corrosive and also toxic. In consequence the damage caused by corrosion are often higher than the actual damage caused by fire.

Halogen-free cables contain no halogens, i.e. the insulation and jacket materials of these cables are composed with polymers on the basis of pure hydrocarbons. By burning such kind of materials, produce no corrosive or toxic gases but only water vapor and carbon dioxide. Polymers like polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP) are halogen-free. These materials are easy flammable and not self-extinguishing.

Halogen-free cables for security requirements must be hardly flammable and self-extinguishing. This happens by using the special polymer compounds, containing the considerable percentage of flame protective materials.

Such kind of protective materials consist of, for example, an aluminum hydroxide which on one side cools the fire location by setting free crystal water and on the other side the released water vapor hinders the admittance of oxygen and thereby this suffocates the flame. By using additional supporting tapes and filling yarns of glass web, micra and similar materials, the functionality of for example E 90 can be realized with the suitable cable accessories.

Application 

The application of halogen-free security cables and wires are specified more and more with increasing numbers of buildings where people gather or everywhere, where safety consciousness to protect human life and valuable materials take a special significance. For example:

  • Hospitals, airports, multistory buildings, stores and shops, hotels, theaters, schools
  • Fire warning plants, alarm systems, ventilation systems, escalators, elevators, safety lights, operation and intensive stations, maintenance equipment
  • Underground railways and other railway plants
  • Data processing installations
  • Power stations and industrial plants with highly valuable machines and materials or risky potentials
  • Mining works
  • Ship building and offshore plants
  • Emergency power supply works
European -Security cables and wires and the advantages  to top up arrow
  • Flame retardant and hardly combustible so that no flame propagation in case of fire can develop
  • Halogen-free; no development of corrosive gases
  • In case of burning the halogen-free cables emit low smoke
  • The danger of toxic gases caused by fire is far inferior
  • Low caloric load
  • Remarkable longer electrical functionality under flame influence
  • Insulation integrity for at least 60 minutes as well as 180 minutes at 800°C under fire condition
  • Suitable for emergency service up to 180 minutes
  • Radiation resistance up to 200 x 106 cJ/kg (up to 200 Mrad)

These characteristics are obtained by using a flexible halogen-free basis material - aluminum hydroxide Al (OH)3

Caloric load values (heat of combustion)   to top up arrow

For designing a building the criterions of the caloric load values are very important. The caloric load values of modern halogen-free cables are reduced by corresponding additives.

The specific heating values of the non metallic raw materials for cables are specified to DIN 51900. The values of the caloric load or heat of combustion for electrical cables are given per running meter in the following tables: Caloric load values of halogen-free security cables & wires (.pdf)

Combustible cable insulations or open building materials of class B1 are regarded as harmless so far as the resulted caloric load is distributed as proportion ale as possible and is
valid ≥ 7 kWh/m2.

The conversion of the values:

1 MJ/ m2 = 0.278 kWh/ m2
1 kWh/ m2 = 3.6 MJ/ m2
Regulations  to top up arrow

According to DIN VDE 0108 supplement 1:

  • The total caloric load of the cables are allowed up to 14 kWh per m2 of the field areas if only halogen-free cables with improved characteristics in the case of fire are used.

If you use PVC cables the total caloric load is only up to 7 kWh per m2

Tests: Behavior in fire  to top up arrow

The characteristics of security cables are tested to DIN VDE specifications (DIN VDE 0472 part 804, test methods A, B and C)

Test Method A - test on single cable (IEC 60332-2)  

  • Test sample of 600 mm cable length shall be in a position vertically hanging. A propane gas burner (Ø 8 mm) shall be at an angle of 45° to the axis and the flame of approximately 100 mm below the lower edge of the sample. Flame influence max. 20 sec.
  • The test is passed if the sample has not burned or the flame extinguished by itself and the damage by fire doesn't reach the remotest upper side of the sample.

Test Method B - test on single cable 
(IEC 60332-1, HD 405.1, EN 50265-2-1, DIN VDE 0482 part 265-2-1)

  • Test sample of 600 mm cable length shall be in a position vertically hanging. A propane gas burner (Ø 8 mm) shall be at an angle of 45° to the axis and the flame of approximately 100 mm below the lower edge of the sample. Flame influence, depending on cable weight, 1 to 2 minutes.
  • The test is passed if the sample has not burned or the flame extinguished by itself and the damage by fire doesn't reach the remotest upper side of the sample.

Test Method C - test on bunched cables  
(similar to IEC 60332-3, HD 405.3, EN 50226-2, DIN VDE 0482 part 2)

  • Test samples of 360 cm cable length are laying parallel side-by-side attached to a test ladder, which is hanging vertically with a distance of 150 mm to the furnace. The sample should be flamed with a flame length of 60 cm on the test sample at approximately 800 °C by a burner width of approximately 250 mm. The test duration should be 20 minutes.
  • The test is passed if the sample has not burned or the flame extinguished by itself and the damage by fire doesn't reach the remotest upper side of the sample.
Corrosiveness of combustion gases   to top up arrow
According to DIN VDE 0472 part 813, IEC 60754-2 and HD 602, DIN VDE 0482 part 267, EN 50267-2-2. For the performance of the test procedure the insulation and jacket materials are to be put in the moveable furnace, preheated to 750 to 800°C. The burning gas is conducted through two gas-washing bottles.
  • The test shall be regarded as passed when the measured pH value is ≥ 100 µS.cm-1
  • During this test all the not desired components of the materials are precipitated such as all halogens, sulphur and nitrogen
Continuance of insulation effect under direct fire conditions  to top up arrow

According to DIN VDE 0472 part 814, IEC 60331

Test sample of 1200 mm cable length is fixed in a horizontal position, 75 mm over the gas burner. The rated voltage of 3 A fuse is fixed between the conductor groups. The burner flame is to regulate so that the temperature on the cable is 800°C (± 50°C) The measuring can be effective until the fuse is blown.
Test voltage 400 V for power cables and wires
Test voltage 110 V for telecommunication cables

  • The test shall be regarded as passed when no 3 a fuse has blown during the test period between 20 to 180 minutes
Non-halogen verification  to top up arrow

According to DIN VDE 0472 part 815, IEC 60754-1, Din VDE 0482 part 267 an dEn 50267-2-1

The corrosion test of gases caused by fire is carried out to the test materials, not of complete cable samples. The proof of halogen is effected by chemical analysis.
Materials with content of:
≤ 0.2 % chlorine and
≤0.1 % fluorine
are regarded as halogen-free.

Smoke density  to top up arrow

According to DIN VDE 0472 part 816, IEC 61034-1 and IEC 61034-2, DIN EN 61304-1+2, HD 606 and BS 7622 part 1 and 2
The test of smoke density is effected to a single cable, laid in a horizontal position within a room of 3 meter cube. The photo metrically measured absorption of light is a measuring unit (in %) of light transmittance for the smoke density.

The test is regarded as passed when the light absorption appears within 40 minutes and the following values shall be obtained for light transmission:

Cable Ø
Transmission of light
> 3 - 5 mm
40 %
> 5 - 10 mm
50 %
> 10 - 20 mm
60 %
> 20 - 40 mm
60 %
> 40 mm
70 %
Functionality of electric cable systems  to top up arrow

According to DIN 4102 part 12 (system test)
DIN 4102 part 12 describes the requirements and measurements necessary in achieving circuit integrity of a complete electric cable system in case of fire.

Cable systems
Regarded as cable systems are power cables, insulated power cables and wires, telecommunication installation cables for telephone and data transmission and rail-distributors including their corresponding connecting devices such as the necessary ducts and conduits, coatings and coverings, connecting elements, supporting devices, cable trays and clamps.

Functionality
According to DIN VDE 4102 part 12

The functionality is given when during the test under fire no interruption of current flow occur in the tested electrical cable system.

According to this standard, the security cables are always to be tested together with the corresponding supporting devices, clamps, holder and mounting accessories.

Note: The above defined functionality has no relationship with the continuance of insulation effect under fire conditions according to DIN VDE 0472 part 814.

Test: Functionality under fire  to top up arrow

During this test under fire a complete cable installation will be tested in a large combustion chamber, i.e. cables and wires including clamps, supporting devices, holders, dowels etc.

Test voltage for power cables: 380 V
Test voltage for telecommunication cables: 110 V
Current load: 3 A


The combustion chamber is to be heated up according to ETK (standard temperature curve). The test period is distinguished in 3 classes:

  • E 30 for the functionality ≥ 30 minutes
  • E 60 for the functionality ≥ 60 minutes
  • E 90 for the functionality ≥ 90 minutes

Raise of temperature in combustion chamber:

  • For E 30 approximately 820°C
  • For E 60 approximately 870°C
  • For E 90 approximately 980°C

After passing the functionality test, this will be certified with the class identification as E 30, E 60, E 90.

Note: At the moment the class E 60, which is specified in DIN VDE standards, is not applied for economical and technical reasons.

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